5-6 | 2021-2022 - Self-expatriation

Expatriation is both a historical and a current theme, linked to mobility and migration, but distinguished from it by a specificity stemming from the notion of “homeland” and the voluntary nature of the reflexive verb. Among the issues addressed are the following: does the act of expatriation produce what are now commonly referred to as “expatriates”, or rather exiles, refugees and “transfuges”? Expatriation implies a sense of uprooting, as well as a sense of identity and belonging, whether chosen or forced. We can also reflect on the issue of statelessness and repatriation. Is expatriation for tax reasons a form of betrayal of one's homeland? The individual who expatriates should preferably be studied in relation to communities (companies, businesses, etc.). The idea of homeland is therefore at the heart of this issue. Does expatriation change homeland? Is it possible to have several homelands? Are there international forms of patriotism?

1. From Uprooting to Exclusion: First World War Refugees in the French Rural West

Ronan Richard.
During the First World War, between 2 and 3 million people choose exile, chased away by the fights. In West of France, 150 000 evacuees, refugees or repatriates are in this way welcomed. From autumn 1914, their integration causes difficulties, minor at the beginning but which become more important from 1915. In a context of prolonged war which nobody has predicted, their sociocultural profile is quickly considered as incompatible with the expectations of native populations, mainly rural and unaccustomed to this “discovery of the difference.”
Section: Articles

2. A Foreigner as Nation Inventor: The Example of Doctor Wilhelm Molly in Neutral‑Moresnet

Cyril Robelin.
Section: Articles

3. Birth of a Nomadic European People, History and Actuality of the Transmigrant Territories of Globalisation from Below in Southern Europe

Alain Tarrius.
1980s: Algerian immigrants since 1962, little visible on the public scene, developed transnational commercial initiatives to supply vast underground markets emerging in France, Italy, Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands, then in Spain, while strengthening their ties with the Maghreb. After 1990, the Algerians of Europe, who were suffering the aftershocks of the civil war in Algeria, withdrew to local micro markets at the same time as the great Moroccan migration was unfolding: more than a million people in the decade created all sorts of European networks for housing, work, ... took over the cross‑border commercial activities of the Algerians, with more flexible and diversified logistics. It was in the early 2000s that they met the Afghan, Georgian, Russian and Ukrainian cohorts of East Asian transmigrants working for Southeast Asian firms, negotiating “poor to poor”, i.e. “by the poor for the poor”, duty and quota‑free, electronic products. Goods sent from Hong Kong to the Persian Gulf Emirates, where they escape the control of the WTO in order to invade, through sales at half price, the huge market of the poor in Europe, who are solvent under these conditions. Taking the trans‑Balkan route, they merged in 2003 in Italy with the Moroccans: a major route of Globalization from below, or among the poor, was thus born from the Black Sea to Andalusia via Bulgaria, Albania, Italy, Southern France and the Spanish Levant. Informal notaries» ensure the ethics of […]
Section: Articles

4. Expatriation as a Form of Emancipation. Towards a Different View of International Migration?

Sylvain Beck.
This paper seeks to analyze expatriation in a phenomenological perspective. It aims to question the usual analytical tools of human displacements. Thedeconstruction of social class, racial and national identities, allows us to highlight the emancipation of the individual from the patria. Expatriation appears like a heuristic existential notion to look differently at international migrations. This perspective unifies migratory situations beyond the implicit cleavages between tradition and modernity.
Section: Articles

5. Les politiques d'asile en Russie : entre migration de retour et rapatriement

Stepan Vasilenko.
This article aims to highlight the way in which, in the Russian national context, public authorities erase the boundaries between return migration and asylum in order to support the repatriation of former Soviet citizens to Russia. This political phenomenon has its roots in the fall of the USSR when Russia has rapidly become a country of immigration. This resulted in the adoption of the Geneva Convention and the creation of the two socio‑legal categories of refugees in Russia: « forced migrants » and « refugees ».
Section: Articles

6. The Diversity of French Expatriates’ Migration Projects in Quebec: a Typology in Four Dynamic Portraits

Danièle Bélanger ; Cécile Lefèvre ; Charles Fleury.
Based on a qualitative study conducted between 2016 and 2018 among thirty French people who migrated to Quebec, this article proposes to distinguish four types of migration projects: the exploration, settlement, circulation and return projects. The trajectories and narratives collected show that these projects are not mutually exclusive or fixed in time, but that there is a fluidity between them, which moreover do not always correspond to the administrative categories of migration statuses in Canadian immigration policy.
Section: Articles

7. Cape(s) of Good Hope ? Between Pride and Guilt, Transmission and Deconstruction: Forms of Post‑Apartheid Afrikaner Identity Expatriations

Valentin Heinrich ; Clémence Snyman.
From 1994, the Afrikaner community members experience an ambiguous relationship with their cultural attributes, used as alibi by the Christian‑nationalist government to justify racial supremacy under apartheid time. Today, these characteristics are seen as deviant and lived as social stigmas. Some Afrikaners vividly criticize their past and try to recreate new patriotic frames which fit today liberal and democratic values, as shown in this article.
Section: Articles

8. “Where is home?”—“Doctors Without Borders”, doctors without a homeland?

Ludovic Joxe.
Are “Doctors Without Borders” (MSF) doctors without a homeland? Based on fifty interviews, statistical data and a participatory observation, this articledescribes humanitarian mission conditions limiting local integration and suggests three forms of attachment: home (“break expatriates”), elsewhere (“multi‑homeland expatriates”) or nowhere (“duty‑free expatriates”). For the latter, MSF plays, until their departure from the organization, the role of substitute homeland.
Section: Articles

9. Plurality of Analytic Levels and Temporalities in the Study of the Relationship with the Homeland : The Example of the Seasonal Migratory Circuit Connecting the Bouches‑du‑Rhône Region to the Maghreb

Giulia Breda.
In this article I show how, on the field of seasonal migration between the Maghreb and the Bouches‑du‑Rhône, the evolution of the links maintainedwith the “homeland,” the territory and social network in the country of origin and the meaning that migrants themselves give to this relationship can be understood through the intersection of a plurality of analytic levels and temporalities: the political and socio‑economic structural context of the host and origin country; the possibilities provided by migrants’ network; the individual and family strategies of the latter.
Section: Articles

10. The Costs of Expatriation

Yacine Boukhris-Ferré.
This article aims at studying the concrete conditions of integration of an undocumented person living in Bordeaux. It is essentially based on an ethnographic survey, interviews and a budget survey carried out with a recipient of the Secours Populaire support in Bordeaux.
Section: Articles

11. L'adresse de référence, la citoyenneté des invisibles

Adèle Pierre.
In Belgium, registration in the Population Register is a prerequisite for access to social rights, as well as an indicator of integration and social recognition. For homeless people, an administrative system has been set up: the reference address. Among other things, this allows the person to be registered in the population register and to obtain a legal and administrative existence. However, today, its application differs from one social welfare organization (called CPAS) to another, the controls being most of the time driven by the fight against social fraud, itself defined by a specific policy of each CPAS.
Section: Articles

12. Liliane Crips et Marie‑Louise Pelus‑Kaplan (dir.), De l’esclavage à l’intégration : vivre et combattre l’exclusion, Michel Houdiard Éditeur, Paris, 2020, 180 p.

Marine Puloch.
Compte-rendu paru dans le numéro 4 de la revue
Section: Review

13. Des dieux, des hommes et pas de rapports sociaux ?

Christophe Darmangeat ; Jean-Loïc Le Quellec.
Section: Review

14. La gestion de la question amazighe par l'État marocain : entre marginalisation et intégration

Mohamed Blilid.
Section: Thesis Summaries

15. La migration des étudiants coréens en France. Liens familiaux et circulation du care : investissements des parents, dettes des enfants

Jung-Him Ha.
Section: Thesis Summaries

16. Le capital social nikkei et les brésiliens d'origine japonaise de São Gotardo (Minas Gérais-Brésil)

Maria Vicenta Haro Matas.
Section: Thesis Summaries

17. Les mondes de l'action théâtrale. Une comparaison dans les quartiers populaires en France et en Italie

Francesca Quercia.
Section: Thesis Summaries

18. Les pratiques enseignantes et la question religieuse. Éléments de comparaison entre le Brésil et la France

Gabriela Valente.
Section: Thesis Summaries

19. La cause des réfugiés en Russie contemporaine : l'association AssistAnce civique entre droit(s) et politique

Stepan Vasilenko.
Section: Thesis Summaries

20. The Stylization in the Translations of the New Testament in Vernacular Macedonian from the 19th Century

Borče Arsov.
The Konikovo Gospel (KG), The Kulakia Gospel (KuG) and The Boboščica Gospel (BG) are among the first known translations of the New Testament in Macedonian vernacular dating from the 19th century. They are all written in Greek alphabet. In this article we present the most specific examples demonstrating a stylization tendency towards a wider dialectal base and/or towards a more elevated style. The most important conclusion is that of all the analysed gospels the most stylized text is the oldest among them, the KG (1852), especially its second hand. The stylization steps are less common for the KuG (1860) and even less for the BG (1880). It is possible to say that the texts analyzed in this paper, together with the other translations of the New Testament in Macedonian vernacular from the 18th and the 19th centuries, open, more or less, a clear path towards the formation of one Biblical language, leading to the translations of the Bible in contemporary Macedonian standard language in 1976, 2003 and 2007.
Section: Varia

21. Youth and Public Participation Mechanisms in Morocco. The Case of the Youth Council in the City of Ouarzazate

Mustapha El Mnasfi.
This article deals with youth councils, one of the mechanisms for participatory democracy established in Morocco. Their objective is to facilitate the full and active participation of young people in public policy design and implementation. This article specifically addresses the use made by different types of local actors of this facility. How do youth councils impact youth who are participating in these structures? How do youth manage to influence local policies? Those are the two main questions that we will try to answer in this paper. The link between youth and public policy is linked to the use made by young people of the public participation mechanism. In this sense, it is critical to try to understand how actors who openly challenge one or more aspect of the public intervention end up becoming actors themselves within that public policy. We will try to demonstrate, from the experience of a youth council established in the city of Ouarzazate, that young people challenging public interventions end up accepting the precise interventions they vehemently opposed once they start joining the formal participatory structures. This research is based on the collection of qualitative data from semidirect interviews with members of the national coalition of youth councils, with young people organized around the local youth council and with local elected officials in Ouarzazate. Field surveys show that young people organized around a socalledparticipatory mechanism can ensure their […]
Section: Varia